Badminton was invented long ago and had a great history, as it was known as Poona (named after the garrison town of Poona city), where it first originated. Later in 1887, the duke of Beaufort took this sport to England from India, where it got its name after the Duke of Beaufort’s House in Gloucestershire.
In 1887 BAE (Badminton Association of England), now known as BWF (Badminton World Federation), the governing body of this sport, launched the first official badminton rules at Dunbar House, located in Portsmouth.
Badminton was officially introduced to Olympics in 1992, held in Barcelona, and 178 Players from 37 different countries participated in Barcelona Olympics, and since then, Asian players have won 93 Olympic medals out of 103.
Rather than this, many national and international tournaments are held yearly, and many badminton lovers participate in them.
So to know more about these tournaments and this sport, let’s dive in:
History of badminton | Origin and Invention
There are many prescriptions regarding badminton’s invention and its history, as it was invented at least two thousand years ago.
The root of badminton can be traced to ancient Greece, China, and India. It originated from the ancient game “Battledore and Shuttlecock,” played by children in India, where two or more players try to hit the shuttlecock with the help of a small racket and keep it in the air.
It originated in Pune, India and was named “Poona.” Later in the 1860s, this sport was adopted by British officers stationed in India and 1870, it became very popular among British expatriates.
In 1887, the duke of Beaufort took this sport to England from India, where it got its name after the Duke of Beaufort’s House in Gloucestershire, where this sport was played for the first time.
The first badminton club was formed in 1887 as the Bath Badminton Club, later replaced by the Badminton Association of England in 1893.
In 1872, the first rules and regulations of this sport were formed at Poona, and talking about its equipment then, the shuttlecocks for indoor tournaments were coated with Indian rubber, while some outdoor shuttles were weighted with lead. Although the depth of the net was of no consequence and it was preferred that it should touch the ground.
The people of England started playing this sport in 1887, with the rules made in India, and later, J. H. E Hart of The Bath Club changed some rules and regulations according to people’s ideas.
In 1983 the BAE (Badminton Association of England) officially launched these rules at Dunbar House, located in Portsmouth, on 13 September.
The BAE started the first competitive tournament, the “All England Open Championship,” in 1899 for men’s, women’s, and mixed doubles. BAE added singles tournaments later in 1900, while the first England-Ireland championship was held in 1904.
In 1899, the first unofficial all-England championship for men was held, while the first badminton tournament for women was introduced in 1900.
The governing body of this sport, BWF, was formed on 5 July 1934 and held Scotland, England, Wales, Denmark, Canada, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands as its founding members. Currently, it has 176 member nations.
The headquarters of this federation is located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and holds approximately 198 member associations worldwide. India joined this federation in 1936 as an affiliate.
The first BWF championship was held in 1977. Today BWF is an international governing body of this sport. Poul Erik Hoyer Larsen is the current president of the BWF and is a retired Danish badminton player. Thomas Lund is the general secretary of BWF, a retired badminton player from Denmark, and was one of the world-leading doubles (mixed doubles) players.
And till date, Asian nations like China, Denmark, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, South Korea, and Taiwan have become dominant in international tournaments. They have consistently produced some world-class players in the past few decades.
This sport firstly appeared in Olympics Games in 1972 as a demonstrating sport. Later in 1988, it appeared as an exhibition sport in Olympics. In late 1992 it was declared a medal sport, where the competitions where singles and doubles competitions were held. Mixed doubles were later introduced four years later in 1966 games.
This sport demands excellent fitness, aerobic stamina, flexibility, agility, strength, and precision at high levels of play. Rather than this, it also requires good motor skills like coordination and sophisticated racket movements around the court.
Today, competitive badminton tournaments are usually played indoors because of the wind and moisture affecting the shuttlecock.
While the badminton court is rectangular, and the court dimensions vary from 44 feet (13.4 m) long to 17 feet (5.2 m) wide for singles. The double court dimensions are 44 feet ( 13.4 m) long and 20 feet (6.1 m) wide, where players try to hit the shuttle back and forth in this sport without letting it touch the ground and inside the court boundaries.
A badminton game holds overall three sets where each set holds 21 points, and to win a game; a player must try to win at least two sets and keep a lead of 2 points from his opponent. The points were only awarded to the serving side till 2006, after which BWF introduced the “rally scoring system,” in which either team could score at any time.
4 Essential Badminton Gear
1. Badminton Rackets
A racket is one of the essential gear required to play badminton. Rackets are made up of several types of materials like carbon fiber composite or steel and are mainly designed by keeping the style of play in mind and range accordingly in price and quality. At the same time, the racket strings are made up of synthetic materials like nylon.
A badminton racket usually has five parts: stringed area, head, throat, shaft, and handle. The upper part of the racket is called the frame, which measures 680 mm in length and 230 mm in width. Although lightweight badminton rackets are more effective as compared to heavy-weight rackets.
An ideal badminton racket should weigh between 71-90 grams, should be flat, the racket head should be 11 3/8 inches long, the breadth not be more than 9 inches, and the exterior frame of the racket should be 3/8 inches wide.
Some top badminton rackets brands in the market are Yonex, Li-Ning, Victor, Pro-tech, Ashaway, Wilson, FZ-Forza, Carlton, Babolat, and Apacs.
Shuttlecock or birdie is a high-drag projectile that holds a conical shape and is manufactured in an aerodynamic design, which is open from above and is hit with the racket to deliver it from one side of the net to another.
There are usually two different types of shuttlecocks available in the market: plastic shuttlecocks and feathered shuttlecocks.
A plastic shuttlecock weighs around 4.75 to 5.50 grams and is one of the best options for beginners who have just started. But these shuttles tend to travel short distances as they are heavier compared to the feathered shuttlecocks.
A feathered shuttlecock also weighs around 4.75 to 5.50 grams and holds 16 feathers embedded on its cork base, while the feather’s length is between 62 to 70 mm, and the diameter of the cork is 25 to 28mm. These shuttlecocks are mainly used at all competitive matches and tournaments.
3. Badminton Shoes
Remember that badminton shoes (non-marking) are slightly different from other sports shoes, mainly designed for indoor badminton courts.
These types of rubber sole shoes provide extra grip to the court and make lesser chances of getting slipped on the court while playing. Also they are lightweight, help prevent injuries, are shock absorbing, well cushioned, and provide better traction, and stability, on the court.
4. Badminton Attire
Badminton has different attire for its players, including shorts, skirts, synthetic sports t-shirts, shoes, socks, and tracksuits. They allow you to move comfortably on different types of court and perform fast and frequent moves.
Badminton is a physical sport that makes a player sweat, so I suggest you always wear a breathable fabric or cotton t-shirt and shorts, which will help absorb the sweat.
Rather than this, there are other benefits of wearing proper badminton attire, as it helps in enhancing your confidence level, helps you differentiate between the players, and provides better comfort while playing.
Basic Rules and Regulations of Badminton
Many think this racket sport is easy to play where you need to hit the shuttle across the net, but it isn’t because it holds some heads and regulations, which are made and set up by BWF (Badminton World Federation).
So, let’s discuss these rules:
- A player can not perform a service unless his opponent is ready.
- A player’s feet should be inside the boundary lines while performing a service.
- If a player misses the shuttlecock while serving, he can not reattempt the serve.
- A player cannot fling and hold the shuttle for too long.
- A player is not allowed to hit the shuttle over the net before it enters his court.
- A player is not allowed to muddle and harass his opponent while playing.
Scoring system rules
- A badminton match consists of the best 3 game sets of 21 each.
- A rally begins just after performing a serve.
- The rally-winning side adds a point to their scoreboard.
- At 20 all, the side that scores the 2 points first wins that game.
- At 29 all, the side that scores the next 1 point first wins that game.
- The side that wins the game becomes the one to serve first in the next game.
Interval and change of ends rules
- When the score of any side reaches 11 points, players get 60 seconds interval.
- After completing a set, 2 minutes break is allowed for the players.
- In the third set, players change their ends when the leading score reaches 11 points.
- A badminton match begins with 0-0 points, and when the server’s score is even, the server serves from the right side of the court and when his score is odd, he serves from the left side.
- If a server wins a rally, he scores a point and gets the chance to serve again from the alternate service court.
- If the receiver wins a rally, he scores a point and becomes the new server.
- At the beginning of the match, the score remains 0-0 for both the players, but when the server’s score is even, the server serves from the right side of the court, and when his score is odd, he serves from the left side.
- If the receiving side wins a rally, they become the new servers.
- If the server-side scores a point or wins a rally, then they again get to serve from the alternative court.
- Players only change their service court if they win a point when their side gets a chance to serve.
- A player is not allowed to perform service from above his waistline.
- If the player’s feet touch the boundary lines while serving.
- A player should not jump or run while performing a service.
- A player is not allowed to obstruct his opponent while serving or playing.
- A player is not allowed to hit the shuttlecock twice.
- If the shuttlecock touches the player’s body.
- A player is not allowed to touch the net while playing.
Lets are usually those calls which the umpire or the players make to pause the game temporarily, and these pauses can be made for various reasons like:
- If the shuttlecock breaks or falls apart during the game.
- When the umpire is unable to take a decision.
- If a player faces any injury while playing.
- When the shuttlecock is stuck in the net.
- If a server performs an early serve.
Top 5 Entertaining Facts About Badminton
1. Badminton is the second most popular sport in the world
Badminton is played regularly by approximately 339 million people once a week around the world, making it the second most popular sport after football.
This racket sport proved its popularity when first introduced in the Olympics in 1992, and to the record, it is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people watched the badminton competition on television.
Today badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, with many of the best players gracing the game from the continent.
2. The roots of badminton originated in India
The exact origins of badminton remain dubious, but some research and articles state that badminton originated almost 2000 years ago in ancient India, China, and Greece.
In medieval Europe, children’s used to play a sport called battledore and shuttlecock, where they used to keep a small feathered shuttlecock in the air as long as possible with the help of a paddle (battledore).
The game later developed in India among the British expatriates, where it was very popular by the 1870s as the sport was known as Poona or Poonah, named after the garrison town of Poona and the first informal set of badminton rules for the game were formed in India by the British colonists in 1867.
Later in 1887, the duke of Beaufort took this sport to England from India, where it got its name after the Duke of Beaufort’s House in Gloucestershire and was played there for the first time.
3. Badminton shuttlecocks are made from the left wing of a goose
Usually, 16 feathers embedded around the shuttle’s cork or rubber base are made from the left wing of a goose that flies up to 300 miles per hour.
The reason and main cause behind it is aerodynamics. Paisan Rangsikitpho, the deputy president of the Badminton World Federation, states that a goose’s left and right wings are curved differently, where the left-wing spins clockwise and the right-wing spins counterclockwise, and for a stable flight, shuttlecocks should have feathers that spin clockwise.
The deputy president of BWF adds to his statement that: The geese are bound for butcher shops or being plucked for down pillows and jackets. If the feathers of their left wings weren’t used for shuttlecocks, they’d be used for something else or just thrown away.”
4. Badminton racket strings are made from animal gut
During the 1500s, when badminton was brought to Europe by the Spanish conquerors, where Aztecs (The Mesoamerican culture that thrived in central Mexico) used to play this sport, the badminton racket strings were made up of animal gut (a thin, tough cord made from the intestines of animals, usually sheep, cats, or pigs).
Synthetic fibre was later introduced into the market when DuPont (an American company) developed nylon to compensate for the rubber shortage during World War II.
Later in 1939, an American company, Ashaway Line and Twine Mfg. Co, founded by Captain Lester Crandall, was the first to deliver the first commercial nylon product as a fishing line when DuPont was looking for a use for its new filament.
Ashaway, in 1949 started making badminton strings and introduced the first multifilament nylon strings, known as Multi-Ply and Pro-Fected.
These synthetic strings were more durable and strong than those made from animal guts.
5. Badminton was initially played with the feet
The roots of badminton also originated from China as people there in the 5th century used to play a sport called Ti Zian Ji, which was a precursor of badminton and was initially played with players’ feet.
Players used their feet instead of rackets to hit the shuttlecock, which was slightly different from a normal shuttlecock. And the interesting part is that you can still see people playing this sport in some parts of China.
Most Popular Badminton Players
Checkout the list of these top badminton players worldwide:
Lin Dan is s a former Chinese professional badminton player, born on 14 October 1983 in Longyan, Fujian, China.
Lin joined the People’s Liberation Army sports troop at 13, and when he turned 18, he started playing for China’s national team and his badminton journey.
He is one of the greatest badminton players of all time. He won almost every badminton tournament he entered, and he remains the only player in history to complete a super grand slam before the age of 28.
Talking about his achievements and titles: he is a two-time Olympic champion, five-time world champion, and six-time All-England champion. He has won 66 titles in singles to date, which includes 15 BWF super series titles, 5 BWF excellent series premier titles, and 1 BWF fantastic series finals title.
Currently, this Chinese super Dan is ranked 20th in the BWF ranking.
Lin Dan is considered the second richest badminton player in the world after Lee Chong Wei (a Malaysian player).
Taufik Hidayat is an Indonesian retired badminton player born on 10 August 1981 in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.
He is well-known for his smooth footwork, drop shots, deceiving net play, and forehand jump shots, which allow him to dominate his opponent on the court. Also, he is considered the closest rival to the dominating world champion, Lin Dan.
Taufik Hidayat started his badminton journey at a very young age of 9, after which he made his international debut in 1996.
Talking about his achievements: he is a former Olympic, World, Asian Games, Asian Champion and the youngest world number one in the men’s singles. He won the Indonesia Open six times (1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006). Rather than this, he had won 27 international titles in his career and is widely regarded as one of the greatest badminton players of all time.
Taufik Hidayat even holds the record for registering the fastest smash in history in the 2016 World Championship in singles with 305 km/hr.
Gao Ling is a former Chinese badminton player, born on 14 March 1979 in Wuhan, Hubei, China.
She is well-known for her aggressive play, dominance, and contagious smile on the court, no matter what happens in the match, and she made an amazing career in singles because of her dominating gameplay.
Gao Ling began her career at the very young age of eight years and won every title available in this sport.
Talking about her achievements: she won four medals in the Olympics, including two gold, one bronze, and one silver.
Rather than this, she also won four medals in World Championships, five gold medals in Uber, three gold medals in Sudirman Cup, and one gold medal in the badminton world cup.
PV. Sindhu, full name: Pusaria Venkata Sindhu, is a professional Indian badminton player born on 5 July 1995 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
She is the first Indian badminton women’s player to win silver in the 2016 Olympics, held in Rio de Janeiro, which made her the youngest player to date with this title.
PV. Sindhu began playing badminton at the early age of eight and decided to make a career in this sport. She begins her international journey at the age of fourteen.
Talking about her achievements: Sindhu, at the very young age of 14, won her first bronze medal in the 2009 Sub Junior Asian Championship held in Colombo. She reached the quarterfinals of the BWF World Junior Championships in 2010, which were held in Mexico, but unfortunately, she lost to a Chinese player Suo Di in a 3-gamer.
Rather than this, she won a bronze medal in the 2020 Olympic Games, held in Tokyo, one gold, two silver, and two bronze medals in World Championships, one silver and one bronze in Asian Games, two bronze in Asian Championships, two bronze medals in Uber cup, two gold, two silver, and one bronze medal in Commonwealth Games.
Lee Chong Wei
Lee Chong Wei is a professional Malaysian badminton player, born on 21 October 1982, in Bagan Serai, Perak, Malaysia.
He was one of the amazing single players and was ranked first worldwide for 349 weeks, including a 199-week streak from 21 August 2008 to 14 June 2012 and his heroics at the top of the game for many years have earned him the title of “Datuk,” also, the Malaysian president describes him as a national hero.
Lee Chong Wei has won many titles and achievements to date, and his autobiography- “Dare to be a Champion,” is one of the best sellers in Malaysia.
Talking about his achievements: he won a gold medal in the Asian championship, two silver medals in Olympics, and three silver and bronze medals in the World championship.
Rather than this, he won four gold medals in the Commonwealth games, one silver and three bronze in the Thomas cup, and one gold and silver in the Southeast Asian games.
Sania Nehwal is a former world no. 1 Indian professional and most successful badminton player. She was born on 17 March 1990 in Hisar, Haryana, India.
She represented India in the Olympics almost three times. She won a bronze medal in her second appearance at London Olympics, held in 2012 and became the first Indian badminton player to clinch an Olympic medal.
Talking about her achievements: She is the first female Indian badminton player to win the BWF series. She has won 24 titles, including 10 super-series titles.
Rather than this, she won two gold medals in Commonwealth Games, created history by winning the Asian Satellite Badminton Tournament twice, won the title of Indonesia Open in 2009, won a bronze medal in Asian Championships, won Australian Super Series by defeating Wang Yihan, and won a bronze medal in World Badminton Championship.
Kento Momota is a Japanese badminton player, born on 1 September 1994 in Mino, Kagawa, Japan.
He is ranked as World’s number 1 badminton player and is well known for his amazing skills and relentless playing style on the court.
Momota started playing badminton from his 2nd standard and used to participate in different tournaments and competitions. Still, his international badminton journey began in 2011, when he participated in Asian Badminton Junior Championship, held in Taipei and won a bronze medal in boys singles.
Talking about his achievements: He won many major tournaments, which include two Asian championship titles and one All England title, and won three silver medals at the Sudirman cup and one silver, one gold, and two bronze medal at the Thomas cup.
Rather than this, he remained the world champion for two consecutive years in 2018 and 2019.
Kento Momota also listed his name in the Guinness world record for “The most men’s singles titles in a season” for his achievements by winning 11 in the 2019 season.
Viktor Axelsen is a professional Danish badminton player, born on 4 January 1994 in Odense, Denmark.
He is one of the most popular badminton players worldwide and is well-known for his offensive play with his steep and powerful smash.
Viktor started playing badminton at a very young age of six after his parents were divorced, and at the age of 17, he joined the national team and won national junior events in 2006 and 2008. In 2009 he began his international badminton journey.
Talking about his achievements: He won a bronze medal in Rio Olympics 2016, a gold medal in Tokyo Olympics 2020, a bronze and gold medal in BWF World Championships, 11 gold medals in Europe Championships and also received a gold and bronze medal in Thomas Cup.
Rather than this, he recently won the Malaysia Open titles in men’s singles 2022.
Chen Long is a professional Chinese badminton player, born on 18 January 1989, in Shashi, Jingzhou, Hubei, China.
He was the former World No.1 badminton player occupying the top men’s singles ranking for 76 consecutive weeks from December 2014 to 2016.
Chen Long started playing badminton at the very young age of seven and joined a sports school in Jingzhou in 1996. In 2005 he joined a national youth team, and in 2007, he began his international badminton journey and won the Asian World Junior Championship the very same year,
Talking about his achievements: he won one gold, silver, and a bronze medal in Olympics, won two gold and two bronze medals in the World Championships and, won five gold and one silver medal in Sudirman Cup, three gold and one bronze medal in Thomas Cup.
Rather than this, he won two gold and two silver medals, one gold, four silver, and three bronze medals in Asian Championships.
Peter Hoeg Gade
Peter Hoeg Gade is a former Danish badminton player, born on 14 December 1976 in Aalborg, Denmark.
He is judged as the most technically gifted player and is well known for his brilliant footwork, pace, aggression, and court coverage.
Peter Gade was ranked as World’s No. 1 player from 1998 to 2001. He represented his nation for four consecutive years at Olympics from 2000-2012.
He has always shown his love for the game differently and continues to promote this sport. Gade has been involved with programs to develop the sport with young people, and back in 2018, he founded the Peter Gade Academy for the upcoming talent.
Talking about his achievements: He won five European titles, three gold medals in the European team championship, a silver medal and four bronze medals in the World Championships, won the European Championship 13 times and brought gold home in all these 13 tournaments.
Rather than this, he also won two silver and three bronze medals in the Thomas Cup.
Most Prestigious Badminton Championships
Take a look at the list of most prestigious badminton tournaments in the world:
BWF World Championships
BWF World Championships or Badminton World Championships was earlier known as IBF World Championships. It is one of the most honored badminton tournaments and is sanctioned by BWF (Badminton World Federation).
This Championship started in 1977 at Malmo, Sweden and was held every three years until 1983 to fill the gap between the uber cup and Thomas cup.
In 1985, this tournament became biennial and was held once every two years until 2005, after which in 2006, BWF listed it in the annual event as there are five events offered – men’s singles, women’s singles, men’s and women’s doubles and mixed doubles.
BWF World Championships stands near the Olympics and is very important for badminton players; here, the players compete for the title of World Champion. This Championship provides no cash prize to the players but helps provide more ranking points and a gold medal.
Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games is one of the rarest of the major tournaments, that is held once in four years. In 1972 Munich Summer Olympics saw badminton as a promoted sport and after two decades, in 1989, it was officially introduced to the Olympics.
The first Summer Olympic game, which introduced badminton as an official sport, was held in 1992 in Barcelona, Spain, where four events were held between men’s & women’s singles and men’s & women’s doubles, and 178 players from 37 countries participated.
In 1996 at Atlanta Summer Olympic Games, mixed doubles were introduced where men and women could share a court during the match.
Thomas Cup is often called the World’s Men’s Team Championships. It is an international badminton tournament sponsored by BWF (the sports governing body).
Sir George Alan Thomas was the founder of the Thomas Cup. He was a British badminton, chess and tennis player. He presented the Thomas cup in 1939, which then was known as The International Championship Challenge Cup.
Atkin Bros made the Thomas Cup in London, costing US$40,000.
The cup was divided into three parts: a plinth, a bowl, and a lid that held a player figure on the top, whereas the height of the cup was 28 inches and 16 inches wide.
The First Thomas cup tournament was held in 1949 at Preston, England, where 10 national teams participated. Only six countries have won it in history, including China, Japan, Malaysia, Denmark, Indonesia, and India.
Uber Cup refers to the Women’s World Team Championships. It is one of the major international badminton tournaments contested by the women’s national badminton teams after every two years.
This Championship Cup was presented and named after a former British women’s badminton player Betty Uber in 1956 at the annual general meeting. She was one of the finest players and has won 13 titles at the All England Open Championship, one in women’s singles, 4 in women’s doubles, and 8 in mixed doubles.
According to Betty’s design and specifications, the Uber cup was made by Mappin and Webb (the prominent silversmiths on Regent Street in London). The height of the cup was 20 inches which holds a rotating globe on the top of the plinth and a female player standing on the top of the shuttlecock.
The first Uber Cup tournament was held on 18th march 1957 at Lytham St Anne’s, Lancashire, England and was played between USA and Denmark, where the USA beat Denmark by 6-1. And till date, only five nations have won this Championship cup, which includes Japan, China, United Nations, Indonesia, and South Korea.
Sudirman Cup is an international badminton mixed team competition organized by the BWF member countries and is held every two years.
It is named after a former Indonesian badminton player and the founder of the Badminton Association of Indonesia (PBSI), Dick Sudirman.
Sudirman cup holds a unique design that holds a shuttlecock-shaped body, and its lid is designed after an Indonesian temple (Borobudur Temple), while the handles indulged in this trophy seem like stamens, indicating badminton’s seed.
Matrix Bandung Company made this trophy in May 1989 with 22-carat gold plated solid silver that stands on an octagonal base of jati wood, and it cost approx; USD 15,000 at the time when it was presented to IBF.
The first Sudirman Cup tournament was held in Bung Karno Stadium, Jakarta, Indonesia, from 24-29 may 1989, where 28 nations participated, and since 1989, only three Asian countries – Indonesia, Korea and China, have won the Sudirman Cup.
All England Open Championships
All England Open Championships, also known as Yonex All England Open Championships, is one of the oldest and longest-standing tournaments in badminton history, held annually in England.
After the introduction of BWF’s latest grading system was given Super Series Ranking in 2007, which was later upgraded to Super Series Premier Status in 2011.
The first open badminton tournament was held in 1898 in the English town of Guildford, after which it developed. Later on April 4, 1899, this tournament was successfully organized into three different categories, including men’s doubles, women’s doubles, and mixed doubles.
The first two tournaments of the All England Open were named “Badminton Association Tournament.” It was first organized as an unofficial tournament, but in 1977, BWF launched it as an official tournament. Also, it was delayed and terminated twice until the record during world war I and II between 1915 to 1919 and 1940 to 1946.
Winning an All England title is a great success for any professional player. It is due to the credibility and reputation of the tournament.
I hope you found this post interesting and useful.
This sport has a long history, from Poona to badminton, and the best thing I like about it is that it is a fun, active sport that is easy to practice with few painless rules.
Now, I would like to hear from you:
Could badminton become the first most popular sport in the future, or does it need to upgrade more?
Either way, leave a comment below.